For 5,000 years, the Nile River has been the focus of Egyptian life. Many of the cities and monuments of ancient Egypt, shown below, were built along the banks of the river, the main source of water in this arid region.


Each of the three pyramids at Giza had temples as well as pyramids for wives and mothers. The Sphinx belongs to the middle pyramid. Officials were buried nearby in a separate area.


One of the oldest cities in ancient Egypt, Heliopolis was also the center of worship of many gods
Abydos was a sacred city. It contained many temples as well as the burial places of some of Egypt’s earliest pharaohs
The stone quarries of Aswan provided material for many of the statues and monuments of ancient Egypt, such as the temple complex at Karnak
Nubia lay to the south Of Egypt and the two cultures developed together. Northern Nubia was periodically dominated by Egypt until around 1100 bce. Nubian kings conquered Egypt in about 750 bce and ruled for a Century as the 25th Dynasty before being defeated by the Assyrians.
Abu Simbel was located at the southern border of Egypt. It is famous for the huge temples built by pharaoh Rameses II.