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Ancient Egyptian society 

E gyptian society was shaped like a pyramid. The pharaoh and queen are in the first place. Below them, nobles, high priests, scribes, ministers, and officers formed the upper class. The middle level is craftsmen and merchants, while workers and farmers formed the base. All…


Abu Simbel Temple 

A Abu Simbel A temple complex on the west bank of the Nile, above WADI HALFA in NUBIA, modern Sudan, erected by RAMESES II (r. 1290–1224 B.C.E.) early in his reign. The structures on the site honor the state gods of Egypt and the deified…


The Nile River 

For 5,000 years, the Nile River has been the focus of Egyptian life. Many of the cities and monuments of ancient Egypt, shown below, were built along the banks of the river, the main source of water in this arid region. Each of the three…


Pyramids of Giza 

Building a pyramid During the Old Kingdom, pharaohs built huge tombs, called pyramids. Pyramids were constructed on the western bank of the Nile River because it was thought that the land of the dead lay to the west. A single pyramid could take up to…



Bastet, Originally taking the the shape of a desert cat or a lioness, Bastet was a fierce deity. She was the daughter of Ra and represented the power of the Sun to ripen crops. Around 1500 BCE, Egyptians began domesticating cats. Bastet then came to…


rosetta stone 

Writing Reading and writing were important skills in ancient Egypt. Scribes—official record-keepers—were among the few people who could read and write, and they held high positions in society. Royal scribes often advised pharaohs, helping them create laws. Writing tools Instead of paper, Egyptians used papyrus,…


egyptian sun god 

RaThe Sun god Ra was one of the most popular gods of Egyptian religion. He was represented by the disk of the Sun, but in many places, he was combined with local gods to make a powerful deity. One such deity was Ra-Harakhty, who was…


Nile river facts 

Nile River Fact No.1) Found in northeast Africa, the Nile has long been recognized as the longest river in the world – stretching a massive 6,695km! There is some debate over this title, though – some scientists argue that the Amazon river in South America…